I agree that tooltips (or some sort of in-game reference) would be nice for these types of things.
Mountainous worlds generally produce wealth and manufacturing, and little food.
Volcanic worlds are rich in manufacturing, and generally have wealth and possibly some research and little food.
Bombarded planets have research, and some manufacturing.
Terran planets are balanced.
Arboreal planets have lots of food.
Paradise planets have lots of everything, and Influence (!!!)
Precursor worlds tend to have lots of influence, in addition to their bonus.
It is really pretty common sense, for the most part.